The Supreme Court is the highest court in the United States. The Justices of the Supreme Court are nominated by the president and must be approved by the Senate.
- Nine members make up the Supreme Court—a Chief Justice and eight Associate Justices. There must be a minimum or quorum of six Justices to decide a case.
- If there is an even number of Justices and a case results in a tie, the lower court's decision stands.
- There is no fixed term for Justices. They serve until their death, retirement, or removal in exceptional circumstances.
Federal Courts & Judicial Agencies
The Constitution gives Congress the authority to establish other federal courts to handle cases that involve federal laws including tax and bankruptcy, lawsuits involving U.S. and state governments or the Constitution, and more. Other federal judicial agencies and programs support the courts and research judicial policy.
- Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts
- Bankruptcy Courts
- Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces
- Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit
- Court of Federal Claims
- Court of International Trade
- Federal Court Interpreters
- Federal Judicial Center
- Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation
- Supreme Court of the United States
- Tax Court
- U.S. Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims
- U.S. Courts of Appeal
- U.S. Sentencing Commission
How does the Supreme Court Work?
How the Supreme Court Works
The Supreme Court is:
- The highest court in the country
- Located in Washington, DC
- The head of the judicial branch of the federal government
- Responsible for deciding whether laws violate the Constitution
- In session from early October until late June or early July
How a Case Gets to the Supreme Court
Most cases reach the Court on appeal. An appeal is a request for a higher court to reverse the decision of a lower court. Most appeals come from federal courts. They can come from state courts if a case deals with federal law.
Rarely, the Court hears a new case, such as one between states.
Dissatisfied parties petition the Court for review
Parties may appeal their case to the Supreme Court, petitioning the Court to review the decision of the lower court.
Justices study documents
The Justices examine the petition and supporting materials.
Four Justices must vote in favor for a case to be granted review.
What Happens Once a Case is Selected for Review?
Parties make arguments
The Justices review the briefs (written arguments) and hear oral arguments. In oral arguments, each side usually has 30 minutes to present its case. The Justices typically ask many questions during this time.
Justices write opinions
The Justices vote on the case and write their opinions.
The majority opinion shared by more than half of the Justices becomes the Court’s decision.
Justices who disagree with the majority opinion write dissenting or minority opinions.
The Court issues its decision
Justices may change their vote after reading first drafts of the opinions. Once the opinions are completed and all of the Justices have cast a final vote, the Court “hands down” its decision.
All cases are heard and decided before summer recess. It can take up to nine months to announce a decision.
The Court receives 7,000-8,000 requests for review and grants 70-80 for oral argument. Other requests are granted and decided without argument.
About the Justices:
There are nine Justices:
- A Chief Justice, who sits in the middle and is the head of the judicial branch.
- Eight Associate Justices
When a new Justice is needed:
- The President nominates a candidate, usually a federal judge.
- The Senate votes to confirm the nominee.
- The Court can continue deciding cases with less than nine Justices, but if there is a tie, the lower court’s decision stands.
Justices are appointed for life, though they may resign or retire.
- They serve an average of 16 years.